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Architecture Main | Classical Orders | Columns | Frieze

In architecture the frieze is the vertical part of an entablature, whether plain or decorated with bas-reliefs, that lies upon the architrave ('main beam') and is capped by the moldings of the cornice. In a looser sense, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long band of painted or modeled decoration in such a position, above eye-level.

The octagonal Tower of the Winds (see illustration) in the Roman agora at Athens bears sculptures of the eight winds on its frieze.

Tower of the Winds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Tower of the Winds, also called horologion (timepiece), is an octagonal Pentelic marble tower on the Roman agora in Athens. It was supposedly built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus around 50 BC, but according to other sources might have been constructed in the 2nd century BC before the rest of the forum.

The 12 m tall structure has a diameter of about 8 m and was topped in antiquity by a weathervane-like Triton that indicated the wind direction. Below the frieze depicting the eight wind deities---Boreas (N), Kaikias (NE), Apeliotes (E), Euros (SE), Notos (S), Lips (SW), Zepyhros (W), and Skiron (NW)---there are nine sundials. In its interior, there was a water clock (clepsydra), driven by water coming down from the acropolis.

In early Christian times, the building was used as the bell tower of a Byzantine Church. It was partly buried in the ground until it was fully excavated in the 19th century by the Greek Archaeological Society.

Two sides of the frieze
The frieze of the tower showing the Greek wind gods Boreas (north wind, on the left) and Skiron (northwesterly wind, on the right).



From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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